Caroligian miniscule was the direct ancestor of blackletter. Blackletter developed from Caroligian as an increasing literate 12th-century Europe required new books in new languages. Books were produced for law, business, grammar, history and other pursuits when new universities were founded.
Blackletter, also known as Gothic Script, Gothic miniscule, Textura was a script used throughout western Europe from the 1150s until the 17th century. It was continued to be used for the German language until the 20th century. Fraktur is a notable script of this type.
The word Fraktur is derived from the Latin fractus meaning “broken.” The lines and curves used to form the letters are broken or fractured. Fraktur is based on, and was designed to resemble, medieval Texture or Gothic cursive handwriting. The Gutenberg bible was the first book writing in this movable type.
Fraktur is calligraphic hand writing of the Latin alphabet and any of several blackletter type faces derived from this hand. The blackletter line are broken up, that is, their forms contain many angles when compared to smooth curves of the Antiqua typefaces modeled after antique Roman square capitals and Carolingian minuscule. From this, Fraktur is sometimes contrasted with the Latin alphabet in northern European texts.